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Ontario Tech acknowledges the lands and people of the Mississaugas of Scugog Island First Nation.

We are thankful to be welcome on these lands in friendship. The lands we are situated on are covered by the Williams Treaties and are the traditional territory of the Mississaugas, a branch of the greater Anishinaabeg Nation, including Algonquin, Ojibway, Odawa and Pottawatomi. These lands remain home to many Indigenous nations and peoples.

We acknowledge this land out of respect for the Indigenous nations who have cared for Turtle Island, also called North America, from before the arrival of settler peoples until this day. Most importantly, we acknowledge that the history of these lands has been tainted by poor treatment and a lack of friendship with the First Nations who call them home.

This history is something we are all affected by because we are all treaty people in Canada. We all have a shared history to reflect on, and each of us is affected by this history in different ways. Our past defines our present, but if we move forward as friends and allies, then it does not have to define our future.

Learn more about Indigenous Education and Cultural Services

Lori Livingston photo

Lori Livingston


Faculty of Health Sciences

Contact information

Science Building - Room 3000
North Oshawa
2000 Simcoe Street North
Oshawa, ON L1G 0C5


Research topics

  • sport officiating
  • clinical biomechanics
  • injury prevention
  • rehabilitation
  • validity, reliability and accuracy of clinical measurements
  • sport coaching

Research and expertise

  • Background and interests

    Dr. Lori Livingston, Professor and Dean, has an established program of research focused on the recruitment, development, retention, and attrition of amateur sport officials. Her work has broadened the research agenda to include critical examinations of factors which impact officials, including the nature of the sport (e.g. invasion game, court sport, fielding sport, aesthetic, racing, etc.), and the environment in which officials perform (e.g. perceived organizational support, urban vs rural, grassroots versus elite). A former national team athlete, coach and administrator, as well as a nationally-ranked field lacrosse umpire, she has strong working relationships and research connections with numerous national, provincial and local sport organizations.  She has published works in a number of different areas, including but not limited to clinical biomechanics, human-computer interaction, and injury prevention. However, her current research program is limited to the area of sport officiating.

    Dr. Livingston holds a dual undergraduate degree in Biology and Physical Education (BA-BPHE with Distinction) and a Master of Science (MSc) degree in Biomechanics from Queen’s University, and a PhD in Educational Psychology from the University of Calgary.  She came to the Ontario Tech University in 2015.

  • Publications

    For a comprehensive list of publications, visit ResearchGate, PubMed and/or Google Scholar.

    Livingston, L.A., & Forbes, S.L. (2017).  Resilience, motivations for participation, and perceived organizational support among aesthetic sport officials. Journal of Sport Behavior, 40, 43-67.

    Livingston, L.A., & Forbes, S.L. (2017).  “Just bounce right back up and dust yourself off.”:  Participation motivations, resilience, and perceived organizational support amongst amateur baseball umpires. Baseball Research Journal, 46(2), 91-101

    Livingston, L.A., Forbes, S.L., Pearson, N., Camacho, T., Wattie, N., & Varian, P. (2017).  Sport officiating recruitment, development, and retention:  A call to action.  Current Issues in Sport Science, 2:011. doi: 10.15203/CISS_2017.011

    Livingston, L.A. & Forbes, S.L. (2016). Factors contributing to the retention of Canadian amateur sport officials: Motivations, perceived organizational support, and resilience. International Journal of Sport Science & Coaching, 11, 342-355.

    Livingston, L.A., (2015).  Ready…draw! The golden age of senior women’s field lacrosse in Canada.  Sport History Review, 46, 226-258.

    Forbes, S.L., & Livingston, L.A. (2013, April).  Changing the call:  Rethinking attrition from the officiating ranks.  Sport in Society, 16, 295-309.

    Tirone, S.C., Livingston, L.A., Miller, A.J., & Smith, E.L. (2010). Including immigrants in elite and recreational sports:  The experiences of athletes, sport providers and immigrants.  Leisure/Loisir, 34, 403-420.

    Huybers-Withers, S.M., & Livingston, L.A. (2010).  Mountain bikes are for men:  Consumption practices and identity portrayed by a niche magazine. Sport in Society, 13, 1204-1222.

    Mahar, S.M., & Livingston, L.A. (2009).  Bilateral measurement of resting calcaneal stance position and tibial varum using digital photography and standardized positioning protocols.  Journal of the American Podiatric Medicine Association, 99, 198-205.

    Moncrieff, M.J. & Livingston, L.A. (2009). Reliability of a digital photographic-goniometric method for coronal plane lower limb measurements.    Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 18, 296-315.

    Livingston, L.A., Tirone, S.C., Smith, E.L., & Miller, A.J. (2008).  Participation in coaching by Canadian immigrants:  Individual and sport system accommodations required.  International Journal of Sport Science & Coaching, 3, 403-415.

    Betts, M.J., Forbes, S.L., & Livingston, L.A. (2007).  Factors contributing to the attrition of Canadian amateur ice hockey officials:  The experiences of referees and linesmen in Atlantic Canada.  Avante, 11, 15-22.

    Livingston, L.A., & Forbes, S.L. (2007).  Factors contributing to the attrition of Canadian amateur ice hockey officials:  Survey results from an Ontario-based district hockey association.  Avante, 11, 1-14.

  • Research collaborators
    • Ontario Soccer, Basketball Ontario, Baseball Canada and others
  • Grants

    Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (2018-2021, $137,090) & Sport Participation Research Initiative (2019-2021, $20,000). Making the right call:  Understanding constraints on the recruitment, retention and development of sport officials (Principal Investigator: N. Wattie with L.A. Livingston & S.L. Forbes, Ontario Tech)

    Ontario Trillium Foundation Award (2017-2020, $294,500).  Long-term officiating development program.  (Principal Investigator:  N. Pearson & T. Camacho, Ontario Soccer with L.A. Livingston & S.L. Forbes, Ontario Tech)

  • Courses taught
    • Research Approaches
    • Advanced Research Methods in the Social and Natural Sciences
  • Education
    • PhD, Educational Psychology, University of Calgary in Calgary, Alberta, 1990
    • Master of Science, Biomechanics, Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, 1984
    • BA/BPHE, Biology-Physical Education (with distinction), Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, 1982